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Fayetteville

HistoryEdit See also: Timeline of Fayetteville, North Carolina Early settlementEdit The area of present-day Fayetteville was historically inhabited by various Siouan Native American peoples, such as the Eno, Shakori, Waccamaw, Keyauwee, and Cape Fear people. They followed successive cultures of other indigenous peoples in the area for more than 12,000 years. After the violent upheavals of the Yamasee War and Tuscarora Wars during the second decade of the 18th century, the North Carolina colony encouraged English settlement along the upper Cape Fear River, the only navigable waterway entirely within the colony. Two inland settlements, Cross Creek and Campbellton, were established by Scots fromCampbeltown, Argyll and Bute, Scotland. Merchants in Wilmington wanted a town on the Cape Fear River to secure trade with the frontier country. They were afraid people would use the Pee Dee River and transport their goods to Charleston, South Carolina. The merchants bought land from Newberry in Cross Creek. Campbellton became a place where poor whites and free blacks lived, and gained a reputation for lawlessness.[citation needed] In 1783, Cross Creek and Campbellton united, and the new town was incorporated as Fayetteville in honor of the Marquis de Lafayette, a French military hero who significantly aided the American forces during the war.[8] Fayetteville was the first city to be named in his honor in the United States.[8] Lafayette visited the city on March 4 and 5, 1825, during his grand tour of the United States.[8] American RevolutionEdit Center tile of floor of the Market House which served as a town market until 1906 Liberty Point in Fayetteville where the "Liberty Point Resolves" were signed in June 1775 The Cool Spring Tavern, built in 1788, is the oldest structure in Fayetteville. Most earlier structures were destroyed by the "great fire" of 1831. The local region was heavily settled by Scots in the mid/late 1700s, and most of these were Gaelic-speaking Highlanders. The vast majority of Highland Scots, recent immigrants, remained loyal to the British government and rallied to the call to arms from the Royal Governor. Despite this, they were eventually defeated by a larger Revolutionary force at the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge. The area also included a number of active Revolutionaries. In late June 1775, residents drew up the "Liberty Point Resolves," which preceded theDeclaration of Independence by a little more than a year. It said, "This obligation to continue in full force until a reconciliation shall take place between Great Britain and America, upon constitutional principles, an event we most ardently desire; and we will hold all those persons inimical to the liberty of the colonies, who shall refuse to subscribe to this Association; and we will in all things follow the advice of our General Committee respecting the purposes aforesaid, the preservation of peace and good order, and the safety of individual and private property." Robert Rowan, who apparently organized the group, signed first. Robert Rowan (circa 1738–1798) was one of the area's leading public figures of the 18th century. A merchant and entrepreneur, he settled in Cross Creek in the 1760s. He served as an officer in the French and Indian War, as sheriff, justice and legislator, and as a leader of the Patriot cause in the Revolutionary War. Rowan Street and Rowan Park in Fayetteville and a local chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution are named for him, thoughRowan County (founded in 1753) was named for his uncle, Matthew Rowan. Flora MacDonald (1722–1790), a Scots Highland woman known for aiding Bonnie Prince Charlie after his Highlander army's defeat at Culloden in 1746, lived in North Carolina for about five years. She was a staunch Loyalist and aided her husband to raise the local Scots to fight for the King against the Revolution. Seventy-First Township in western Cumberland County (now a part of Fayetteville) is named for a British regiment during the American Revolution – the 71st Regiment of Footor "Fraser's Highlanders", as they were first called. Post-revolutionEdit Historic sign in Fayetteville Fayetteville had what is sometimes called its "golden decade" during the 1780s. It was the site in 1789 for the state convention that ratified the U.S. Constitution, and for the General Assembly session that chartered the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Fayetteville lost out to the future city of Raleigh in the bid to become the permanent state capital. In 1793, the Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry formed and is still active as a ceremonial unit. It is the second-oldest militia unit in the country. Henry Evans (circa 1760–1810), a free black preacher, is locally known as the "Father of Methodism" in the area. Evans was a shoemaker by trade and a licensed Methodistpreacher. He met opposition from whites when he began preaching to slaves in Fayetteville, but he later attracted whites to his services. He is credited with building the first church in town, called the African Meeting House, in 1796. Evans Metropolitan AME Zion Church is named in his honor. AntebellumEdit Fayetteville had 3,500 residents in 1820, but Cumberland County's population still ranked as the second-most urban in the state behind New Hanover County (Wilmington). Its "Great Fire" of 1831 was believed to be one of the worst in the nation's history, although no lives were lost. Hundreds of homes and businesses and most of the best-known public buildings were lost, including the old "State House". Fayetteville leaders moved quickly to help the victims and rebuild the town. The Market House, completed in 1832, became the center of commerce and celebration. The structure was built on the ruins of the old State House. It was a town market until 1906. It served as Fayetteville Town Hall until 1907. The City Council is considering adapting the Market House into a local history museum. The Civil War era and late nineteenth centuryEdit The Confederate arsenal in Fayetteville was destroyed in March 1865 by Union Gen. William T. Sherman during the Civil War. In March 1865, Gen. William T. Sherman and his 60,000-man army attacked Fayetteville and destroyed the Confederate arsenal (designed by the Scottish architect William Bell[9]). Sherman's troops also destroyed foundries and cotton factories, and the offices of The Fayetteville Observer. Not far from Fayetteville, Confederate and Union troops engaged in the last cavalry battle of the Civil War, the Battle of Monroe's Crossroads. Downtown Fayetteville was the site of a skirmish, as Confederate Lt. Gen. Wade Hamptonand his men surprised a cavalry patrol, killing 11 Union soldiers and capturing a dozen on March 11, 1865. In the late nineteenth century, Fayetteville whites adopted Jim Crow and state laws to impose racial segregation. Despite their constitutional rights, blacks were disenfranchisedunder a new state constitution, a condition that persisted for more than sixty years, until federal civil rights legislation of the mid-1960s. 20th century to the presentEdit Children working in the Tolar, Hart and Holt Mills in Fayetteville, 1914. Photo by Lewis Hine. Cumberland County's population exploded in the post-World War II years, with its 43% increase in the 1960s the largest in any of North Carolina's 100 counties. Construction was fast-paced as shopping developments and suburban subdivisions began to spread outside the Fayetteville city limits toward Fort Bragg and Pope Air Force Base. The Fayetteville and Cumberland County school systems moved toward integration gradually, beginning in the early 1960s; busing brought about wider-scale student integration in the 1970s. Segregation of public facilities continued. Civil rights marches and sit-ins, with students from Fayetteville State Teachers College (now Fayetteville State University) at the forefront, led to the end of whites-only service at restaurants and segregated seating in theaters. Politics changed. Blacks and women gained office in significant numbers, from the late 1960s and on into the early '80s. The Vietnam Era was a time of change in the Fayetteville area. Fort Bragg did not send many large units to Vietnam, but from 1966 to 1970, more than 200,000 soldiers trained at the post before leaving for the war. This buildup stimulated area businesses. Anti-war protests in Fayetteville drew national attention because of Fort Bragg, in a city that generally supported the war. Anti-war groups invited the actress and activist Jane Fondato Fayetteville to participate in three anti-war events. At this time, Fayetteville also made headlines after Army doctor Jeffrey R. MacDonald murdered his pregnant wife and two daughters in their Ft. Bragg home in 1970; the book and movie Fatal Vision were based on these events. To combat the dispersal of suburbanization, Fayetteville has worked to redevelop its downtown through various revitalization projects; it has attracted large commercial and defense companies such as Purolator, General Dynamics and Wal-Mart Stores and Distribution Center. Development of the Airborne & Special Operations Museum, Fayetteville Area Transportation Museum, Fayetteville Linear Park, and Fayetteville Festival Park, which opened in late 2006, have added regional attractions to the center. In the first decade of the 21st century, the towns and rural areas surrounding Fayetteville had rapid growth. Suburbs such as Hope Mills, Raeford and Spring Lake had increases in population. In 2005, Congress passed the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Act, resulting in several new commands relocating to Fort Bragg. These include the U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) and U.S. Army Reserve Command, both of which relocated fromFort McPherson in Atlanta. More than 30,000 people were expected to relocate to the area with associated businesses and families. FORSCOM awards over $300 billion in contracts annually.[10] In the November/December 2009 issue of Where to Retire, the magazine named Fayetteville as one of the best places to retire in the United States for military retirements.[11] Fort Bragg / Pope Army AirfieldEdit Entrance sign to Fort Bragg FORSCOM & USARC headquarters Fort Bragg and Pope Army Airfield Field are in the northern part of the city of Fayetteville. Several U.S. Army airborne units are stationed at Fort Bragg, most prominently the XVIII Airborne Corps HQ, the 82nd Airborne Division, and the United States Army Special Operations Command. Fort Bragg was the home of the Field Artillery at the onset of World War II. All the Army'sartillery units east of the Mississippi River were based at the post, about 5,000 men in all. Soldiers tested the Army's new bantam car, which was soon to be known as the Jeep, although most of the power to move artillery still came from horses and burros. On September 12, 1940, the Army contracted to expand the post, bringing the 9th Infantry Division to Fort Bragg. Mission of Pope Field is to provid airlift to American armed forces, to humanitarian missions flown all over the world. Pope Field particularly provides air transportation for the 82nd Airborne, among other airborne units on Fort Bragg. All of Pope's fighter jet squadrons have been relocated to Moody AFB, Georgia. The main entity at Pope are now the Air Force Reserves, although they still have a small amount of active personnel. In September 2008, Fayetteville annexed 85% of Ft. Bragg, bringing the official population of the city to 206,000. Ft. Bragg still has its own police, fire, and EMS services. Fayetteville hopes to attract large retail businesses to the area using the new population figures.[12] Sanctuary community for military familiesEdit Fayetteville becomes the first "Sanctuary for Soldiers". 82D Airborne Division 4-mile Run On September 5, 2008, Cumberland County announced it was the "World's First Sanctuary for Soldiers and Their Families"; it marked major roads with blue and white "Sanctuary" signage. Within the county, soldiers were to be provided with local services, ranging from free childcare to job placement for soldiers' spouses.[13] Five hundred volunteers have signed up to watch over military families. They were recruited to offer one-to-one services; member businesses will also offer discounts and preferential treatments. Time magazine recognized Fayetteville for its support of military families and identified it as "America's Most Pro-Military Town".[14] National Register of Historic PlacesEdit Main article: National Register of Historic Places listings in Cumberland County, North Carolina

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