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Lawrence, Kansas

HistoryEdit See also: History of Kansas SettlementEdit Prior to Kansas Territory being opened to settlement in May 1854, most of Douglas County was part of theShawnee Indian Reservation.[17] The Oregon Trailfollowed the Kansas River through what would become Lawrence and Mount Oread was used as a landmark and an outlook.[17] Dr. Charles Robinson and Charles Branscomb were sent by the New England Emigrant Aid Company to scout for a location for a city. They arrived in the vicinity of Lawrence in July 1854 and noted the beauty of the area and felt the area was well suited for a town.[17] The original “pioneer party” left Massachusetts on July 17, 1854 and consisted of 29 men.[17] They arrived at the site Robinson and Branscomb selected on August 1. The second party arrived in Lawrence on September 9 after leaving August 9.[17] The town was officially named Lawrence City on October 6. Original names for the settlement were Wakarusa, Yankee Town, New Boston[17] and Plymouth but Lawrence was chosen to honor Amos A. Lawrence, a valuable benefactor of the Emigrant Aid Company and because “the name sounded well and had no bad odor attached to it in any part of the Union."[17]The main street of the town was named Massachusetts to commemorate the origins of the pioneer party.[18] The first post office in Lawrence was established in January 1855.[19] Plymouth Congregational Church in Lawrence was the first church established inKansas Territory. In March 1857, the Quincy School was started in the Emigrant Aid office before moving to the basement of the Unitarian Church in April. The Plymouth Congregational Church was started in September 1854 by Reverend S.Y. Lum, a missionary sent to Kansas. Bleeding Kansas and the Civil WarEdit Shortly after Lawrence’s founding, two newspapers were started: The Kansas Pioneer and the Herald of Freedom. Both papers touted the Free State mission which caused problems from the people ofLecompton, then the pro-slavery headquarters, located about ten miles northwest of Lawrence, andland squatters from Missouri. The Kansas Free Statebegan in early January 1855.[20] On November 21, 1855, Charles Dow was shot and killed by Franklin Coleman in Hickory Point about fourteen miles south of Lawrence. Shortly after, a small army of Missourians led by Douglas County Sheriff Samuel L. Jones entered Kansas to attack Lawrence. John Brown and James Lane had hustled Lawrence citizens into an army and erected barricades but no attack happened. A treaty was signed and the Missouri army reluctantly left.[21] Ruins of Free State Hotel after the attack in 1856 Harassment by Sheriff Jones and other Southern sympathizers continued unabated. The Herald of Freedom, the Kansas Free State and the Free State Hotel were indicted as being “nuisances.”[20] On April 23, 1856 Sheriff Jones was shot while trying to arrest free-state settlers.[22] On May 21, Sheriff Jones and a posse of 800 Southern sympathizers converged on Lawrence. Dr. Robinson’s house on Mount Oread was taken by the federal marshal as headquarters and the newspaper printing presses were damaged and thrown in the river. The Free State Hotel was also destroyed.[23] Despite the constant presence of impending war, Lawrence continued to grow. Its 1860 population was estimated at 2,500 although the official Census recorded 1,645.[24] Lawrence became the county seat of Douglas County in 1857, prior to that Lecompton had been the seat and even when the American Civil War broke out in April 1861, Lawrence was still a magnet to conflict. William Clarke Quantrill and 300-400 Confederate guerillas rode into Lawrence andsacked the city at dawn on August 21, 1863. Most houses and businesses in Lawrence were burned and between 150 and 200 men and boys were murdered.[25][26] Post-Civil WarEdit Attempts to begin a university in Kansas were firstundertaken in 1855,[27] but it was only after Kansas became a state in 1861 that those attempts saw any real fruition. An institute of learning was proposed in 1859 as The University of Lawrence, but it never opened. When Kansas became a state, provision was included in the Kansas Constitution for a state university.[27] From 1861 to 1863 the question of where the university would be located—Lawrence,Manhattan or Emporia—was debated. In February 1863, Manhattan was made the location of the state's land-grant college, leaving only Lawrence and Emporia as candidates. The fact that Lawrence had $10,000 plus interest donated by Amos Lawrence plus 40 acres (160,000 m2) to donate for the university had great weight with the legislature and Lawrence beat out Emporia by one vote. The University of Kansas officially opened in 1866 with 55 students.[27] Old North College in 1867—the first building on KU Campus Facing an energy crisis in the early 1870s, the city contracted with Orlando Darling to construct a dam across the Kansas River to help provide the city with power. Frustrated with the construction of the dam, Darling resigned and the Lawrence Land & Water Company completed the dam without him in 1873; however, only when J.D. Bowersock took over the dam in 1879 that the constant damage to the dam ceased and repairs held up. The dam made Lawrence unique which helped in winning business against Kansas City and Leavenworth. The dam closed in 1968 but was reopened in 1977 with help from the city, which wanted to build a new city hall adjacent to the Bowersock Plant.[28][29] In 1884, the United States Indian Industrial Training School was opened in Lawrence during a time when Native American boarding schools were used to undermine Tribal Nations. Boys were taught the trades of tailor making, blacksmithing, farming and others while girls were taught cooking and homemaking. In 1887, the name was changed to the Haskell Institute, after Dudley Haskell, a legislator responsible for the school being in Lawrence. In 1993, the name was changed again to Haskell Indian Nations University.[30] North LawrenceEdit The Lawrence Visitors Center, formerly the Union Pacific Depot Grant Township, north of the Kansas River, was annexed to Douglas County in 1870 from southernSarcoxie Township in Jefferson County. The largest city in the township was Jefferson, founded in 1866 just over the river from Lawrence. Jefferson was renamed North Lawrence in 1869 and it was attempted to annex the town to Lawrence proper but the motion failed. In 1870 the State Legislature annexed the town.[31] Just northeast of North Lawrence was the site of Bismarck Grove, home to numerous picnics, temperance meetings and fairs. In 1870, “Bismarck” was organized and the first gathering was a temperance meeting in 1878. The last fair was held at the Grove in 1899 and the area became private property in 1900.[32] 20th century and beyondEdit In 1888, Watkins National Bank opened at 11th & Massachusetts. Founded by Jabez B. Watkins, the bank would last until 1929. Watkin’s wife Elizabeth donated the bank building to the city to use as a city hall. In 1970, the city built a new city hall and after extensive renovations, the bank reopened in 1975 as the Elizabeth M. Watkins Community Museum.[33] Watkins Community Museum, once Watkins National Bank and Lawrence City Hall In 1903, the Kansas River flooded causing property damage in Lawrence, especially North Lawrence. The water got as high as 27 feet and water marks can still be seen on some buildings especially at TeePee Junction at the U.S. 24-40 intersection and at Burcham Park.[34][35] Lawrence would be hit by other floods in 1951,[36] where the water rose over 30 feet,[35] and in 1993 but with the reservoir and levee system in place, Lawrence only had minimal damage compared to the other floods.[37] Also in 1903, Theodore Roosevelt visited Lawrence on his way to Manhattan where he gave a short speech and dedicated a fountain at 9th & New Hampshire.[38] The fountain was later moved to South Park next to the gazebo. Roosevelt would visit Lawrence again in 1910 after visiting Osawatomiewhere he dedicated the John Brown State Historical Site and gave a speech on New Nationalism.[39] In 1871, the Lawrence Street Railway Company opened and offered citizens easy access to hotels and businesses along Massachusetts Street. The first streetcar was pulled by horses and mules and the track just ran along Massachusetts Street. After the 1903 flood, the Kansas River bridge had to be rebuilt but was not considered safe for a streetcar to pass over. The Lawrence Street Railway Company closed later that year. In 1907, C.L. Rutter attempted to bring back a bus system, after having failed in 1902. In 1909, a new streetcar system was implemented putting Rutter out of business and lasting until 1935.[40] In 1921, Lawrence Memorial Hospital opened in the 300 block of Maine Street. It started with only 50 beds but by 1980, the hospital would expand to 200.[41] LMH has been awarded several awards and recognitions for care and quality including The Hospital Value Index Best in Value Award and is ranked nationally in the top five percent for heart attack care by the American College of Cardiology.[42] In 1929 Lawrence began celebrating its 75th anniversary. The city dedicated Founder’s Rock, commonly referred to as the Shunganunga Boulder, a huge red boulder brought to Lawrence from nearTecumseh. The rock honors the two parties of the Emigrant Aid Society who first settled in Lawrence.[43] Lawrence also dedicated the Lawrence Municipal Airport on October 14.[35] In 1943, the federal government transported German and Italian prisoners of World War II to Kansas and other Midwest states to work on farms and help solve the labor shortage caused by American men serving in the war effort. Large internment camps were established in Kansas: Camp Concordia, Camp Funston (at Fort Riley), Camp Phillips (at Salinaunder Fort Riley). Fort Riley established 12 smaller branch camps, including Lawrence.[44] The camp in Lawrence was near 11th & Haskell Avenue near the railroad tracks. The camp would close by the end of 1945. In 1947, Gilbert Francis and his son George opened Francis Sporting Goods downtown, selling mostly fishing and hunting gear. A decade later they moved across the street to larger retail space at 731Massachusetts, enabling them to expand into othersporting goods. In November 2014, in the wake of the opening of a new Dick's Sporting Goods location in Lawrence, Francis Sporting Goods, announced its retail business, located within what had become Lawrence's Downtown Historic District, would be closed by the end of the year, allowing the Francis family to focus on supplying uniforms and equipment to teams.[45] The 900 block of Massachusetts Street In the early 1980s, Lawrence grabbed attention from the television movie The Day After. The TV movie first appeared on ABC but was later shown in movie theaters around the world. The movie depicted what would happen if the United States were destroyed in a nuclear war. The movie was filmed in Lawrence, and hundreds of local residents appeared in the film as extras and in speaking roles.[46] In 1989, the Free State Brewing Company opened in Lawrence becoming the first legal brewery in Kansas in more than 100 years.[47] The restaurant is in a renovated inter-urban trolley station in downtown Lawrence. In 2007, Lawrence was named one of the best places to retire by U.S. News & World Report.[48] In 2011, the city was named one of America's 10 best college towns by Parents & Colleges.[49]

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